390 BC – Roman-Gaulish Wars: Battle of the Allia – a Roman army is defeated by raiding Gauls, leading to the subsequent sacking of Rome.
1290 – King Edward I of England issues the Edict of Expulsion, banishing all Jews (numbering about 16,000) from England; this was Tisha B’Av on the Hebrew calendar, a day that commemorates many Jewish calamities.
1389 – Kingdom of France and Kingdom of England agree to the Truce of Leulinghem, inaugurating a 13-year peace; the longest period of sustained peace during the Hundred Years’ War.
1870 – The First Vatican Council decrees the dogma of papal infallibility.
1914 – The US Congress forms the Aviation Section, US Signal Corps, giving definite status to aircraft within the US Army for the first time.
1925 – Adolf Hitler publishes his personal manifesto Mein Kampf.
1968 – Intel is founded in Santa Clara, California.
1976 – Nadia Comăneci became the first person in Olympic Games history to score a perfect 10 in gymnastics at the 1976 Summer Olympics.
1984 – McDonald’s massacre in San Ysidro, California: in a fast-food restaurant, James Oliver Huberty opens fire, killing 21 people and injuring 19 others before being shot dead by police.
1996 – Battle of Mullaitivu: The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam capture the Sri Lanka Army’s base, killing over 1200 Army soldiers.